Manual FOREIGN VOICES: Lessons From Colonial Era Literature About Rendering Multilingual Dialogue

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As of it, Mohammad Hoesni Thamrin inveighed actions underestimating Indonesian. After some criticism and protests, the use of Indonesian was allowed since the Volksraad sessions held in July Three years later, the Indonesians themselves formally abolished the language and established Bahasa Indonesia as the national language of the new nation. The adoption of Indonesian as the country's national language was in contrast to most other post-colonial states, as neither the language with the most native speakers in this case, Javanese nor the language of the former European colonial power in this case, Dutch was to be adopted, but rather a local language with many fewer native speakers than the most widely spoken local language nevertheless, Malay was the second most widely spoken language in the colony after Javanese, and had many L2 speakers using it for trade, administration, and education.

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In when Indonesia declared its independence, Indonesian was formally declared the national language, [18] although then it was the native language of only about 5 per cent of the population, whereas Javanese and Sundanese were the mother tongues of 42—48 percent and 15 percent respectively. In , Javanese was easily the most prominent language in Indonesia. It was the native language of nearly half the population, the primary language of politics and economics , and the language of courtly , religious , and literary tradition.

With thousands of islands and hundreds of different languages, the newly independent country of Indonesia had to find a national language that could realistically be spoken by the majority of the population and that would not divide the nation by favoring one ethnic group, namely the Javanese, over the others. In , Indonesian was already in widespread use; [19] in fact, it had been for roughly a thousand years. Over that long period of time, Malay, which would later become standardized as Indonesian, was the primary language of commerce and travel. In addition, it was the language used for the propagation of Islam in the 13th to 17th centuries, as well as the language of instruction used by Portuguese and Dutch missionaries attempting to convert the indigenous people to Christianity.

Moreover, it was the language of the sultanate of Brunei and of the future Malaysia , on which some Indonesian nationalists had claims see Greater Indonesia.

Over the first 53 years of Indonesian independence , the country's first two presidents, Sukarno and Suharto constantly nurtured the sense of national unity embodied by Indonesian, and the language remains an important component of Indonesian identity today. Through a language planning program that made Indonesian the language of politics , education , and nation-building in general, Indonesia became one of the few success stories of an indigenous language effectively overtaking that of a country's colonizers to become the de jure and de facto official language.

Today, Indonesian continues to function as the language of national identity as the Congress of Indonesian Youth envisioned, and it also serves as the language of education, literacy , modernization , and social mobility. While Indonesian is spoken as a mother tongue by only a small proportion of Indonesia's large population i.

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In a nation that boasts more than native languages and a vast array of ethnic groups, it plays an important unifying and cross-archipelagic role for the country. Use of the national language is abundant in the media, government bodies, schools , universities , workplaces , among members of the Indonesian upper-class or nobility and also in many other formal situations, although the Indonesian Census shows that only While this is a phenomenon common to most languages in the world for example, spoken English does not always correspond to its written standards , the proximity of spoken Indonesian in terms of grammar and vocabulary to its normative form is noticeably low.

This is mostly due to Indonesians combining aspects of their own local languages e.

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This results in various vernacular varieties of Indonesian, the very types that a foreigner is most likely to hear upon arriving in any Indonesian city or town. This phenomenon is amplified by the use of Indonesian slang , particularly in the cities. The most common and widely used colloquial Indonesian is heavily influenced by the Betawi language , a Malay-based creole of Jakarta , amplified by its popularity in Indonesian popular culture in mass media and Jakarta's status as the national capital. In informal spoken Indonesian, various words are replaced with those of a less formal nature.

Sangat or amat very , the term to express intensity, is often being replaced with the Javanese-influenced banget. In informal writing the spelling of words is modified to reflect the actual pronunciation in a way that can be produced with less effort. For example, capai becomes cape or capek , pakai becomes pake , kalau becomes kalo. In verbs, the prefix me- is often dropped, although an initial nasal consonant is often retained, as when mengangkat becomes ngangkat the basic word is angkat.

The suffixes -kan and -i are often replaced by -in. For example, mencarikan becomes nyariin , menuruti becomes nurutin. The latter grammatical aspect is one often closely related to the Indonesian spoken in Jakarta and its surrounding areas. Indonesian is one of the many varieties of Malay. Malay historical linguists agree on the likelihood of the Malay homeland being in western Borneo stretching to the Bruneian coast. Its ancestor, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian , a descendant of the Proto-Austronesian language , began to break up by at least BCE, possibly as a result of the southward expansion of Austronesian peoples into Maritime Southeast Asia from the island of Taiwan.

It has very high mutual intelligibility with the Malay register in Malaysia, which is officially known there as Bahasa Malaysia. The similarities are comparable to those between British English and American English. Although each language of the family is mutually unintelligible, their similarities are rather striking. Many roots have come virtually unchanged from their common ancestor, Proto-Austronesian language.

There are many cognates found in the languages' words for kinship, health, body parts and common animals. Numbers, especially, show remarkable similarities. However, Indonesian as it is known today was heavily influenced by several languages due to historical ties with other nations. Dutch made the highest contribution to the language, especially in vocabulary due to the Dutch's colonization for over three centuries, from the 16th century until the midth century. Indonesian also receives many of English words as results of globalization and modernization , especially since the s, as far as the Internet's emergence and development until now.

Indonesian language

The phrase "to run amok" comes from the Indonesian verb amuk to run out of control, to rage. Indonesian is neither a pidgin nor a creole since its characteristics do not meet any of the criteria for either. It is believed that the Indonesian language was one of the means to achieve independence, but it is opened to receive vocabulary from other foreign languages aside from Malay that it has made contact with since the colonialism era, such as Dutch , English and Arabic among others, as the loan words keep increasing each year.

In , Indonesian had In East Timor , which was occupied by Indonesia between and , Indonesian is recognised by the constitution as one of the two working languages the other being English , alongside the official languages of Tetum and Portuguese. Indonesian is the official language of Indonesia , thus its usage is encouraged throughout the Indonesian archipelago. It is regulated in Chapter XV, Constitution of Indonesia about the flag, official language, coat of arms, and national anthem of Indonesia. Indonesian functions as a symbol of national identity and pride, and is a unifying language among the diverse Indonesian ethnic groups.

It also serves as a vehicle of communication among the Indonesian provinces and different regional cultures in Indonesia. According to Indonesian law, the Indonesian language was proclaimed as the unifying language during Sumpah Pemuda on 28 October , developed further to accommodate the dynamics of Indonesian civilization.

This status has made the Indonesian language relatively open to accommodate influences from other Indonesian ethnic languages, most notably Javanese as the majority ethnic group in Indonesia, and Dutch as the previous colonizer. Compared to the indigenous dialects of Malay spoken in Sumatra and Malay peninsula or the normative Malaysian standard, the Indonesian language differs profoundly by a large amount of Javanese loanwords incorporated into its already rich vocabulary.

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As a result, Indonesian has wider sources of loanwords , compared to Malaysian Malay. It is sometimes said that the Indonesian language is an artificial language made official in By artificial, it means that Indonesian was designed by academics rather than evolving naturally as most common languages have, [39] in order to accommodate the political purpose of establishing an official unifying language of Indonesia.

By borrowing heavily from numerous other languages it expresses a natural linguistic evolution; in fact, it is as natural as the next language, as demonstrated in its exceptional capacity for absorbing foreign vocabulary. The disparate evolution of Indonesian and Malaysian has led to a rift between the two standardized registers. This has been based more upon political nuance and the history of their standardization rather than cultural reasons, and as a result there are asymmetrical views regarding each other's variety among Malaysians and Indonesians.

In Malaysia, the national language is called either Malay or Malaysian; in Indonesia, it is Indonesian. Malaysians tend to assert that Malaysian and Indonesian are merely different normative varieties of the same language, while Indonesians tend to treat them as separate, albeit closely related, languages. The result of this attitude is that Indonesians feel little need to harmonize their language with Malaysia and Brunei, whereas Malaysians are keener to coordinate the evolution of the language with Indonesians, [40] although the Indonesian alphabet reform was largely seen as a concession of Dutch-based Indonesian to the English-based spelling of Malaysian.

It is usually said that there are six vowels in Indonesian. In standard Indonesian orthography, the Latin alphabet is used, and five vowels are distinguished: a, i, u, e, o. Some analyses claim that Indonesian has three native diphthong phonemes only in open syllables, they are:. On this basis, there are no phonological diphthongs in Indonesian.

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The consonants of Indonesian are shown below. If the penult has a schwa, then stress moves to the ante-penultimate syllable if there is one, even if that syllable has a schwa as well; if the word is disyllabic, the stress is final. In disyllabic stress with a closed penultimate syllable, such as tinggal 'stay' and rantai 'chain' , stress falls on the penult. However, there is some disagreement among linguists over whether stress is phonemic unpredictable , with some analyses suggesting that there is no underlying stress in Indonesian.

The classification of languages based on rhythm can be problematic. Word order in Indonesian is generally subject-verb-object SVO , similar to that of most modern European languages , such as English. However considerable flexibility in word ordering exists, in contrast with languages such as Japanese or Korean , for instance, which always end clauses with verbs.

Indonesian, while allowing for relatively flexible word orderings, does not mark for grammatical case , nor does it make use of grammatical gender.

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In Indonesian, affixes take on an important role because slightly different affixes may have very different meanings. There are four types of affixes: prefixes awalan , suffixes akhiran , circumfixes apitan and infixes sisipan. Affixes are categorized into noun, verb, and adjective affixes. Other examples of the use of affixes to change the meaning of a word can be seen with the word ajar teach :.

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Noun affixes are affixes that form nouns upon addition to root words. The following are examples of noun affixes:. The prefix per- drops its r before r, l and frequently before p, t, k. In some words it is peng- ; though formally distinct, these are treated as variants of the same prefix in Indonesian grammar books. Similarly, verb affixes in Indonesian are attached to root words to form verbs. In Indonesian, there are:. In addition to these affixes, Indonesian also has a lot of borrowed affixes from other languages such as Sanskrit, Arabic and English. For example, maha- , pasca- , eka- , bi- , anti- , pro- etc. Indonesian does not make use of grammatical gender , and there are only selected words that use natural gender. A majority of Indonesian words that refer to people generally have a form that does not distinguish between the sexes.

However, unlike English, distinction is made between older or younger. There are some words that have gender, for instance putri means "daughter", and putra means "son" and also pramugara means "male flight attendant" and pramugari meaning "female flight attendant".